Our skin is the largest organ of our body.It covers the external surface of the body and protects it from infections.Also it acts as protective barrier to the environment, allowing and limiting the inward and outward passage of water, electrolytes and various substances.


Various Skin Issues

The sun’s rays make us feel good but exposure to sun also causes many skin ailments like age spots, wrinkles and other serious problems like skin cancer.Sun exposure causes most of the skin damage that we think of as a normal part of aging.



Ultravoilet(UV) rays are invisible form of radiation and the main cause of skin damage. Depending upon the wavelength there are three main types of ultravoilet radiations-


UV-B at high doses kills and damages the skin cells causing
reddening of skin called Erythema(sunburns) while UV-A penetrates more deeply and damages the deeper layers of skin and disturbs the connective tissue due to which skin gradually loses its elasticity which along with cell proliferation in the outer layer of the skin by UV-B results into wrinkles, sags and bags.
The long term effects include skin cancer such as Basal and Squamous cell carcinoma, and Malignant Melanoma.

No Sunscreen is capable of blocking 100% of UV radiation. Therefore, Antioxidants are needed to scavenge oxidants resulting from UV rays not blocked through sunscreen application.


  • Direct exposure of skin to the sun rays
  • Free radicals generated





Hyperpigmentation is a concentrated and usually localised increase in the skin’s natural colour. These dark spots are mainly located on the face, neckline and back of the hands and are usually harmless.


Skin’s natural colour is due to the pigment melanin produced by melanocytes, the cells present in the skin. Hyper pigmentation is due to over production of melanin by melanocytes. This over production is mainly caused by UV light exposure which induces inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage in keratinocytes. As a result, mediators are released which causes excessive melanin production by stimulation of melanocytes and melanin is deposited in keratinocytes to protect the skin from over exposure causing solar lentigines or seasonal spots called Freckles.
Other causes of hyper pigmentation are environmental factors like Smoke: due to cigarettes, auto Emission or factory smoke;
Hormonal changes (Melasma) such as those in aging, pregnancy, birth control pills, post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy and post-inflammatory hyper pigmentation in acne prone skin.


  • Exposure to UV Rays
  • Melanin deposition in cells
  • Melanin production
  • Oxidant and Inflammatory activity


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Dehydrated Skin


Dehydrated Skin, as a skin condition, has less water than normal skin. One of the skin’s most important functions is water conservation, acting as a semi-permeable barrier to the loss of water (“Transepidermal Water Loss)


Skin acts as a barrier to water loss and retention of water in the Stratum Corneum(SC) is dependent on the presence of natural hygroscopic agents within the corneocytes and the SC intercellular lipids, orderly arranged to form a barrier to Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL).Stripping off naturally occuring lipids in SC, by Detergents, Surfactants and Enviromental conditions leads to disruption of skin barrier which results in excessive TEWL and less retention of water in skin

If the barrier function of our skin becomes compromised, irritants can penetrate it and disrupt nerve endings and blood vessels


  • Transepidermal Water Loss(TEWL)
  • Skin barrier damage



Skin Aging


Skin aging is a biochemical process that principally takes place in the lower epidermis and in the dermis. It can be intrinsic or chronological aging and extrinsic or environmental aging.

What causes aging?

Various environmental factors ,UV-irradiation, air pollution, smoking, poor diet, alcohol, dry weather and stress are responsible for extrinsic aging. Among them UV-irradiation is the most fundamental one, as it can damage skin to such an extent, that makes it seem prematurely aged (photoaging). Photoaging is the main cause of wrinkles.

Aging is the consequence of lower production and increased breakdown of the proteins, collagen and elastin, that impart firmness and elasticity to the skin. Protein glycation, a non-enzymatic reaction of proteins( collagen and elastin), results in cross-linked proteins called AGE (Advanced Glycation End-products), responsible for deterioration of the existing collagen and elastin .UV radiations accelerates normal aging by promoting glycation through oxidative stress.

Major contributing mechanism in aging is the Reactive oxygen species(ROS), initiating and activating a complex cascade of biochemical reactions in human skin, thus interfering with the synthesis of dermal collagen. Also have direct damaging effects on membrane lipids like ceramides

Ceramides constitute about 40% of stratum corneum. The amount of ceramides present in the stratum corneum decreases drastically with age because keratinocytes have a reduced ability to synthesize ceramides over time. Reduced production of ceramides is compensated by the thicker SC, consisting of larger corneocytes covering the aged skin surface due to the retardation of the desquamating process which reduces the water-binding capacity of skin leading to drier skin and more wrinkles. Also oil secreation from sebaceous glands decreases with age leaving skin more dry. Dehydrated and dry skin is more prone to premature aging due to the lack of ceramides.


  • Collagen and ceramide depletion
  • ROS


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Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when oil and dead skin cells clog the skin’s pores. Acne primarily affects teens; more than 85% experience at least a mild form of this condition.
Acne is more common and severe in males than in females.

What Causes Acne ?

Acne is a disorder resulting from the action of hormones and other substances on skin’s Oil Glands (sebaceous glands) and Hair Follicles.
Normally,Sebum(oil) produced by sebaceous glands seeps onto skin surface through opening of follicle ,lubricates the skin to protect it and hair follicles produce keratinocytes at normal rate.
In acne, hyper secretion of sebum (oil) and overproduction of keratinocytes by hair follicles blocks the pores. Sebum gets trapped which leads to formation of closed Comedo. Bacteria like Propionibacterium acnes(P.acnes) that normally live on skin grow in plugged follicle and causes inflammation.
When the wall of plugged follicles break down, it spills everything into nearby skin including sebum,shed skin cells and bacteria-leading to lesions or pimples which may further lead to post-inflammatory pigmentation.
Factors causing acne include hormones like testosterone, spicy food, fat diet, mensuration and mental stress.


  • Sebum production
  • Inflammation
  • Infection


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